The Sociological Perspective This section of the course introduces students to the discipline of sociology, focusing on its history, the questions and scientific methods that characterize it as a field, and what distinguishes it from other social science disciplines. Included in this definition is the ongoing evolution of sociology as a discipline that is both basic science and applied science. Important in this perspective are the elements of sociological practice and possible careers in sociology at all levels of academic preparation. The first two units of the course introduce students to the dynamic interplay between theory and the logic of the scientific method in sociology.
United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. National Prisoner Statistics, Annual estimates of resident population by sex, race, and Hispanic origin for the United States, states and counties: April 1, to July 1, See Methodology section for additional information.
The scale of racial disparity in incarceration can also be seen by comparing states that have lower than average black incarceration rates to those with higher than average white incarceration rates.
Here we find that the states with the highest white incarceration rates Oklahoma, Idaho, Texas, Florida, and Arizona fall below the states with the lowest black rates Hawaii, Massachusetts13 Data from Massachusetts in this report should be interpreted with caution.
The system of incarceration in Massachusetts is somewhat unique in that this state uses county-level houses of corrections to hold some inmates who have been convicted of felonies and sentenced up to 2. The population of prisoners in houses of corrections is approximately 5, but the racial composition of those incarcerated at these institutions is not publicly reported.
For this reason, estimates in this report do not include inmates in houses of corrections. As a result, the rates of incarceration by race and ethnicity are underestimated. For more on the composition of Massachusetts prison system, see: Massachusetts Department of Corrections Drivers of Disparity Persistent racial disparities have long been a focus in criminological research and the presence of disparities is not disputed.
Racial disproportionality of U. Law, social standing and racial disparities in imprisonment. Social Forces 66 3: State racial disparities in imprisonment.
The Sentencing Project; Sorenson, J. Racial disproportionality in state prison admissions: Can regional variation be explained by differential arrest rates? Journal of Criminal Justice State rates of incarceration by race and ethnicity.
The Sentencing Project; Tonry, M. Racial Disproportions in US Prisons. British Journal of Criminology 34 1: Proposed explanations for disparities range from variations in offending based on race to biased decisionmaking in the criminal justice system, and also include a range of individual level factors such as poverty, education outcomes, unemployment history, and criminal history.
Racial disproportionality in the American prison population: Using the Blumstein method to address the critical race and justice issues of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal 5 2: Research in this area finds a smaller amount of unwarranted disparity for serious crimes like homicide than for less serious crimes, especially drug crimes.
He noted that if there was no discrimination after arrest, the racial makeup of prisoners should approximate the population of arrestees. The greatest amount of unexplained disparity was found among drug offenses: University of Colorado Law Review 64 3:Intellectual origins of United States prisons.
Incarceration as a form of criminal punishment is "a comparatively recent episode in Anglo-American jurisprudence," according to historian Adam J. Hirsch. Before the nineteenth century, sentences of penal confinement were rare in the criminal courts of British North America.
But penal incarceration had been utilized in England as early as the. Models of American Prisons The prisons that we know today are a far cry from what they were originally. Originally, prisons were places where convicted criminals were sent to be in seclusion from the rest of the population.
These criminals were supposed to be alone, so that they could think about. Jul 11, · FROM CNN's Jack Cafferty: Turns out the American Dream may not be for everyone. A new report by the Pew Charitable Trusts shows that a family's race, economic background and neighborhood play a role in economic mobility.
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