The role of the prefrontal cortex on executive functions

Other factors can come into play, such as porn addiction or game addiction which have both gone rampant with the rate of developing technologies. She had fallen out of a two-story window and hit her head on the hard ground, suffering a concussion.

The role of the prefrontal cortex on executive functions

The prefrontal cortex is an important part of the brain that is responsible for many of our cognitive abilities. The prefrontal cortex is required for our analytical thinking problem solvingemotional control and intelligence, verbal communication, and memory forming abilities.

The Prefrontal Cortex and Planning So what would happen if you remove only the prefrontal cortex from the frontal lobe of the brain?

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The cerebral cortex is the most anterior (rostral) brain region and consists of an outer zone of neural tissue called gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies. There is a strong consensus that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in biasing attention and behavior in executive functions (Norman and Shallice, ; Hazy et al., )—however, without a specific mechanism of how the prefrontal cortex mediated executive “decides” to bias attention and behaviors, the concept will remain. This situation has now changed considerably and the chapters in The Prefrontal Cortex—Executive and Cognitive Functions reflect the ever-increasing degree of theoretical, and technical, sophistication that has been brought to bear on this area of study.

First, let us consider that the prefrontal cortex is interconnected with many areas throughout the brain, including sensory and motor areas[1,2] and posterior association cortices. It links information from primary and unimodal sensory areas, and is important in perception and language.

Although the prefrontal cortex is interconnected with many other parts of the brain, damage to the prerfontal cortex does not result in any immediately obvious impairment to cognition and intelligence [7]. But given that the prefrontal cortex is connected to many different parts of the brain, a change should be expected if the prefrontal cortex is damaged.

And again, no substantial behavioral change was observed when the entire left or right prefrontal cortex was surgically removed.

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To illustrate what this means, these monkeys were taught to do a certain action according to a stimuli- before their whole prefrontal cortex was removed. For example, how to open a door by its handle. After the prefrontal cortex was removed, the monkeys would still reach for a door handle if they saw one.

However, the monkeys without the prefrontal cortex could not open the door- which is a complex, goal-oriented action that requires turning the handle and moving the door to open.

This goes to show that the prefrontal cortex is required for planning and acting according to a plan. The monkeys without the prefrontal cortex could only do an action reflexively without knowing why they are doing it. Certain objects and settings can compel these individuals to perform the associated action without regard to the appropriateness of the context [9,10].

Many fascinating anecdotal stories of these patients with damage to the PFC are available. For example, one story recounts of a patient who had worked in an executive position for numerous years prior to his frontal stroke.

Another patient, upon seeing a stapler, was compelled to staple together any loose paper that was sitting on the desk. Yet another patient saw a toothbrush and automatically picked it up to brush her teeth.

By Database Center for Life Science. Whether to do something, or not. Without the prefrontal cortex, a person no longer has the ability to say no. Instead, he or she would act habitually according to a stimuli. Without the prefrontal cortex, the patient loses his ability to decide when or when not to perform an action; when or when not to brush his or her teeth.

And perhaps the prefrontal cortex may hold the answer to why some people have a hard time quitting an addiction. In fact, many studies show that the prefrontal cortex plays a significant role in our ability to control an addiction. We rely on the prefrontal cortex to overcome our primary instincts, desires, or addictions.

Because the prefrontal cortex is related to our self-control, I speculate that a damage or malfunction to the prefrontal cortex may lead to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCDgiven that the symptoms of OCD fits the fact that a person may perform an action compulsively, reflexively, or without self-control.

Prefrontal Cortex and Language Processing The prefrontal cortex plays a very important role in language. Specifically, the left inferior prefrontal cortex, especially the anterior and inferior parts of the gyrus, is shown to be associated with semantic mental activities[12].

That means this region of the brain experiences increased energy metabolism i. In other words, the left prefrontal cortex is responsible for mental operations that involve understanding language meanings.

The Prefrontal Cortex and Semantics A network showing the semantic relationship between words So the question is, how did scientists learn that the left prefrontal cortex is connected to language processing, specifically semantic functions?

The role of the prefrontal cortex on executive functions

A non-semantic task may be something along the lines of judging whether a word is in upper or lower case e. Scientists have also found that people who are atypically right brain hemisphere dominant in language experienced activation in the right prefrontal cortex for semantic tasks.

In other words, semantic functions belong to side of the brain that is dominant for language processing- and is not necessarily bound to one side of the prefrontal cortex.

The role of the prefrontal cortex on executive functions

It is just that the norm for many people is to have the left prefrontal cortex to be dominant for semantic language processing.There is a strong consensus that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in biasing attention and behavior in executive functions (Norman and Shallice, ; Hazy et al., )—however, without a specific mechanism of how the prefrontal cortex mediated executive “decides” to bias attention and behaviors, the concept will remain.

The brain's default mode network (DMN) has become almost synonymous with self-referential mental activity. The DMN – composed primarily of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) – was first identified by an analysis of nuclear imaging studies that showed that these brain regions consistently displayed higher levels of.

The prefrontal cortex is necessary but not solely sufficient for executive functions; for example, the caudate nucleus and subthalamic nucleus also have a role in mediating inhibitory control. [2] [7]. This page lists the studies assessing the brain structure and functioning of Internet porn users and sex/porn addicts (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder).To date every study offers support for the porn addiction model (no studies falsify the porn addiction model).The results of these 40 neurological studies (and upcoming studies) are consistent with + Internet addiction "brain studies.

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

The cerebral cortex is the most anterior (rostral) brain region and consists of an outer zone of neural tissue called gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies. The prefrontal cortex is an important part of the brain that is responsible for many of our cognitive abilities.

The prefrontal cortex is required for our analytical thinking (problem solving), emotional control and intelligence, verbal communication, and memory forming abilities.

PREFRONTAL CORTEX—EXECUTIVE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS. | Brain | Oxford Academic