See Article History Luigi Galvani, born September 9,BolognaPapal States [Italy]—died December 4,Bologna, Cisalpine RepublicItalian physician and physicist who investigated the nature and effects of what he conceived to be electricity in animal tissue. His discoveries led to the invention of the voltaic pilea kind of battery that makes possible a constant source of current electricity. On obtaining the doctor of medicine degree, with a thesis De ossibus on the formation and development of bones, he was appointed lecturer in anatomy at the University of Bologna and professor of obstetrics at the separate Institute of Arts and Sciences. Inalso, he married Lucia, the only daughter of Professor Galeazzi of the Bologna Academy of Science, of which Galvani became president in
Francois Etienne du Plessis Shutterstock A C-section, or Caesarean section also spelled Cesarean sectionis a type of surgery used to deliver a baby. Nearly one in three pregnant women in the United States gave birth by Caesarean section inaccording to the most recent birth statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC.
But in the early s, about one in five pregnant women delivered a baby this way. These increased rates of Caesarean deliveries have been linked with a variety of different factors from rising rates of obesity and diabetes to multiple births and increased maternal age.
Other reasons for high C-section rates include the use of epidurals and techniques that induce labor, which may cause complications that could result in the need to perform a surgical delivery.
Although Caesarean births can be life saving for both mother and baby, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has expressed concern that C-section deliveries might be overused, and they have recommended ways to reduce the national rate.
The key to reducing high C-section rates in the United States is preventing unnecessary first C-sections, said Dr.
These days, the majority of women who have delivered their first baby by C-section will wind up having a repeat C-section somewhere down the road, she said. A woman who has already had a C-section for a previous birth has a 90 percent chance of giving birth by C-section againaccording to a report from the CDC.
However, studies have found that women who have had C-sections and attempt to deliver their next children vaginally, which researchers call a VBAC vaginal birth after Caesareanmay have a relatively low rate of complications afterward, such as needing blood transfusions or unplanned hysterectomies, compared with women who scheduled a C-section.
We need to figure out which babies really need to be delivered by C-section to protect their health and which of these surgeries may be unnecessary, she explained. One way to possibly reduce C-section rates in this country is to educate women about the benefits of vaginal delivery, Bryant said.
The following information will explain what is involved in a C-section, and how a woman may feel before, during and after this surgery. Her abdomen will be washed and her pubic hair may be clipped or trimmed.
Women are usually given regional anesthesia, either an epidural block or a spinal block, which both numb the lower half of her body but will allow the mother to be awake when her baby is born. This tends to be safer than general anesthesia, where a woman would be totally asleep during the delivery, Bryant said.
Some women may get a vertical, or up-and-down cut, she said. After the abdomen is opened, an incision is made in the uterus.
“This edition of The Origin of Species is a welcome addition to the field. This volume brings together all the important primary material necessary to understanding Darwin and his milieu, giving students of Victorian science and the history of evolutionary biology a wonderful resource. standardization of terms and definitions. Caesarean section rates at the hospital level and the need for a universal classification system. 2 Introduction ecologic studies available in the scientific literature, with the objective of identifying, critically appraising, and synthesizing the findings of these studies, which. A new study published in the journal Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica reveals that induction of labor at term in the absence of maternal or fetal indications increases the risk of cesarean section and other postpartum complications for the woman, as well as neonatal complications.
Typically, a side-to-side horizontal cut is made, which ruptures the amniotic sac surrounding the baby, Bryant said. Once this protective membrane is ruptured, the baby is removed from the uterus, the umbilical cord is cut, and the placenta is removed.
The baby is examined then given back to the mother for skin-to-skin contact, Bryant said. The abdominal skin is closed with stitches or with staples, which will be removed before a woman leaves the hospital. A woman typically spends 60 to minutes in the operating room for a C-section, depending upon whether any complications arise during the delivery, Bryant said.
Recovering from a C-section After a C-sectiona woman may spend between 2 to 4 days in the hospital, but it may take her up to 6 weeks to feel more like herself again, Bryant said. Her abdomen will feel sore from the surgery and the skin and nerves in this area will need time to heal.Start studying English 10th academic vocab.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The early signs of war in Europe in the late s did not initially stir a significant response among the scientific and technical communities in the United States.
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Natural Caesarean section is safe, popular and feasible and is not encouraging maternal requests for C-section births Date: June 5, Source: ESA (European Society of Anaesthesiology). Biology Chapter 9 Part 1: Darwin and Natural Selection.
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59 terms. Cognition Test . The Scientific Origins of Galvanize Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician and physicist who, in the s, studied the electrical nature of nerve impulses by applying electrical stimulation to frogs' leg muscles, causing them to contract.