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Bruce Sterlingauthor of The Hacker Crackdown In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more often used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures.
That is, the media portrays the 'hacker' as a villain. Nevertheless, parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers, who utilize hacking in a helpful way.
White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context. The subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground.
It initially developed in the context of phreaking during the s Hackers and tools of the trade the microcomputer BBS scene of the s.
It is implicated with The Hacker Quarterly and the alt. Inan article in the August issue of Psychology Today with commentary by Philip Zimbardo used the term "hacker" in its title: It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use.
CLU is the software he uses for this. Byhacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon,  but there was no public awareness about such activities.
Hackers at play", with Patrick's photograph on the cover. Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking.
House of Representatives on September 26,about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year. Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was also advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May issue of the Communications of the ACM.
Later that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. The popularity of Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Eggpublished one year later, further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness.
Classifications Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree.
Raymondauthor of The New Hacker's Dictionaryadvocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected.
In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity. According to Ralph D. Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".
White hat A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration testsor vulnerability assessments for a client - or while working for a security company which makes security software.
The term is generally synonymous with ethical hackerand the EC-Council,  among others, have developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of ethical hacking. Black hat A "black hat" hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" Moore, Grey hat A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker.
A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example.
They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical.HACKERS AND HACKING 1.
Introduction Hacking can be easily associated with invasion of privacy. Because hacking allows the hackers to gain information that was previously not authorized to them, the Tools of the Trade Much alike the unauthorized entry in real life, hacking allows hackers to gain.
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Jan 31, · TimesCast: Chinese hackers infiltrated The New York Times’s computer systems, getting passwords for its reporters and others.
Published On Jan. 31,