What Purposes Do Grades Serve? Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Anderson identify the multiple roles that grades serve: Why is grading often a challenge?
One or Several Judgments? Analytic Each criterion dimension, trait is evaluated separately.
Gives diagnostic information to teacher. Gives formative feedback to students. Easier to link to instruction than holistic rubrics. Good for formative assessment; adaptable for summative assessment; if you need an overall score for grading, you can combine the scores.
Takes more time to score than holistic rubrics. Takes more time to achieve inter-rater reliability than with holistic rubrics. Holistic All criteria dimensions, traits are evaluated simultaneously.
Scoring is faster than with analytic rubrics. Requires less time to achieve inter-rater reliability. Good for summative assessment. Single overall score does not communicate information about what to do to improve.
Not good for formative assessment. General Description of work gives characteristics that apply to a whole family of tasks e. Can share with students, explicitly linking assessment and instruction.
Reuse same rubrics with several tasks or assignments. Supports learning by helping students see "good work" as bigger than one task. Students can help construct general rubrics. Lower reliability at first than with task-specific rubrics.
Requires practice to apply well. Task-Specific Description of work refers to the specific content of a particular task e. Teachers sometimes say using these makes scoring "easier. Cannot share with students would give away answers. Need to write new rubrics for each task. For open-ended tasks, good answers not listed in rubrics may be evaluated poorly.
From Assessment and Grading in Classrooms p. Brookhart and Anthony J. Copyright by Pearson Education. Analytic and holistic rubrics Analytic rubrics describe work on each criterion separately. Holistic rubrics describe the work by applying all the criteria at the same time and enabling an overall judgment about the quality of the work.
The top panel of Figure 1. For most classroom purposes, analytic rubrics are best. Focusing on the criteria one at a time is better for instruction and better for formative assessment because students can see what aspects of their work need what kind of attention. Focusing on the criteria one at a time is good for any summative assessment grading that will also be used to make decisions about the future—for example, decisions about how to follow up on a unit or decisions about how to teach something next year.
One classroom purpose for which holistic rubrics are better than analytic rubrics is the situation in which students will not see the results of a final summative assessment and you will not really use the information for anything except a grade.
Some high school final examinations fall into this category. Grading with rubrics is faster when there is only one decision to make, rather than a separate decision for each criterion.
On balance, for most classroom purposes I recommend analytic rubrics. Therefore, most of the examples in this book will be analytic rubrics. Before we leave holistic rubrics, however, I want to reemphasize the important point that all the criteria are used in holistic rubrics.
You consider them together, but you don't boil down the evaluation to the old "excellent-good-fair-poor" kind of thinking along one general "judgment" dimension. True holistic rubrics are still rubrics; that is, they are based on criteria for good work and on observation of how the work meets those criteria.
General and task-specific rubrics General rubrics use criteria and descriptions of performance that generalize across hence the name general rubricsor can be used with, different tasks.College-Level Writing Rubric Masterful Skilled Able Developing Novice (Way Off) Focus, Purpose, Thesis (Controlling of the assigned topic.
Idea). 1 Using Rubrics to Grade, Assess, and Improve Student Learning Strengthening Our Roots: Quality, Opportunity & Success Professional Development Day Miami-Dade College March 7, Examples of Rubrics. The VALUE rubrics contribute to the national dialogue on assessment of college student learning.
The AAC&U web is widely used by individuals working in schools, higher education associations, colleges, and universities in the United States and around the world.
Ken Wolf Trait Writing Scoring; Student Peer Review. Rating and reviews for Professor Jacob Burdick from Georgia Gwinnett College Lawrenceville, GA United States.
Grading Rubric for Writing Assignment. Your professor may use a slightly different rubric, but the standard rubric at AUR will assess your writing according to the following standards. ashio-midori.com (GSO) is a free, public website providing information and resources necessary to help meet the educational needs of students.