January 7, ] volution is the cornerstone of modern biology.
Before the scientific era, people often made up imaginative stories to explain what they saw in the world. The scientific method changed that by requiring rigorous experimentation to test hypotheses and determine what is real.
With the Theory of Evolution, people are back to making up imaginative stories. The primary advantage of complete metamorphosis is eliminating competition between the young and old.
Larval insects and adult insects occupy very different ecological niches. Whereas caterpillars are busy gorging themselves on leaves, completely disinterested in reproduction, butterflies are flitting from flower to flower in search of nectar and mates.
Because larvas and adults do not compete with one another for space or resources, more of each can coexist relative to species in which the young and old live in the same places and eat the same things. Nevertheless, "biologists have established a plausible narrative about the origin of insect metamorphosis, which they continue to revise as new information surfaces.
In response to this unfavorable situation, some pro-nymphs gained a new talent: If such pro-nymphs emerged from their eggs before they reached the nymphal stage, they would have been able to continue feeding themselves in the outside world.
Over the generations, these infant insects may have remained in a protracted pro-nymphal stage for longer and longer periods of time, growing wormier all the while and specializing in diets that differed from those of their adult selves--consuming fruits and leaves, rather than nectar or other smaller insects.
Eventually these prepubescent pro-nymphs became full-fledged larvae that resembled modern caterpillars. The underside of the wing has a brown pigment, which helps hide the resting blue morpho. That shimmering blue on top is not pigment.
These extremely tiny shapes that cover the scales on top of the wing cause light wave interference. Blue light has a wavelength range from to nm. The slits in the scales of the Morpho are nm apart. Because the distance between slits corresponds to half of the wavelength of blue light, this is the wavelength that undergoes constructive interference.
The slits are attached to a base of melanin, a material that absorbs light, further strengthening the blue image.
If evolutionists get around to making up a story for how these structures evolved, what do you think it will be? Come on, use your imagination! Scallop eyes From a report in Science journal Scallops possess a visual system comprising up to eyes.
The optic nerves from nearly all of the eyes project on to the site of visual processing in scallops. There, the scallop can combine the visual information from the Two striking features were observed in all the eyes.
First, the mirror does not have a simple hemispherical shape. Rather, the curvature of the mirror varies across its surface. Second, the optical axes of the mirror and the lens are not aligned.
The crystals are arranged so that the high-refractive-index faces are oriented toward the direction of the incident light across the mirror, creating a highly reflective surface. The square-plate morphology is also optimized for tiling.
The multilayered mirror is constructed from 20 to 30 layers of crystals separated by thin layers of cytoplasm. Crystal tiling minimizes surface defects at the crystal interfaces that would cause optical diffraction effects.
The mirror forms images on a double-layered retina used for separately imaging the peripheral and central fields of view. The mirror forms functional images on both retinas, which appear to be specialized for different functions.
The distal retina responds to relatively dark, moving features, triggering defense or escape reflexes. The image-forming mirror in the eye of the scallop. In he wrote an essay about a famous giraffe evolution story in his "Natural History" magazine column. Giraffes, we are told, got long necks in order to browse the leaves at the tops of acacia trees Although acacia tree leaves are the preferred food for adult giraffes during the wet season, giraffes will browse on many other trees and bush types.
There is plenty of foliage at lower-levels, and giraffes often eat bushes and even low-growing land vegetation. They commonly munch on long grass and low bushes and many kinds of ground-growing plants. The neck of the average female giraffe is two feet shorter than male necks.
If, during a drought, only a longer neck could reach the last leaves high up on acacia trees, then the females would have starved to death and giraffes would have gone extinct.Drosophila Simulation Patterns of Heredity. dihybrid and sex-linked traits and test their hypotheses by selecting fruit flies with different visible mutations, mating them, and analyzing the phenotypic ratios of the offspring.
Select two traits on the same chromosome and study their inheritance patterns (excludes sex-linked and. Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Drosophila biology: The common fruit fly is a model organism for genetic studies.
The reason it is so widely used is because it is easily cultured in the lab, has a . Ten Reasons Evolution is Wrong Revised 3/ 1. Introduction. 1a Microevolution Defined. 2. Reason 1 Genetics is not Evolution's Friend.
2a Were Darwin's Galapagos Finches Evolution?. 2b What About Mutations. 2c Population Genetics Factors. 2d Beneficial verses Positive Mutations. 2e Molecular Biology and Irreducible Complexity. 2f Do Hox (Homeotic) Genes Save Evolution? Speciation by vicariance is widely regarded as the most common form of speciation; and is the primary model of allopatric speciation.
Vicariance is a process by which the geographical range of an individual taxon, or a whole biota, is split into discontinuous populations (disjunct distributions) by the formation of an extrinsic barrier to the exchange of genes: that is, a barrier arising.
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