A total of people men and four women were put to death in California between December and April one man was hanged in this period and the rest executed by lethal gas.
Colonial period[ edit ] Abolitionists gathered support for their claims from writings by European Enlightenment philosophers such as MontesquieuVoltaire who became convinced the death penalty was cruel and unnecessary  and Bentham. In addition to various philosophers, many members of QuakersMennonites and other peace churches opposed the death penalty as well.
After the American Revolutioninfluential and well-known Americans, such as Thomas JeffersonBenjamin Rushand Benjamin Franklin made efforts to reform or abolish the death penalty in the United States. All three joined the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisonswhich opposed capital punishment.
Following colonial times, the anti-death penalty movement has risen and fallen throughout history.
In Against Capital Punishment: Haines describes the presence of the anti-death penalty movement as existing in four different eras. Anti-death penalty sentiment rose as a result of the Jacksonian era, which condemned gallows and advocated for better treatment of orphans, criminals, poor people, and the mentally ill.
In addition, this era also produced various enlightened individuals who were believed to possess the capacity to reform deviants. Although some called for complete abolition of the death penalty, the elimination of public hangings was the main focus. Initially, abolitionists opposed public hangings because they threatened public order, caused sympathy for the condemned, and were bad for the community to watch.
However, after multiple states restricted executions to prisons or prison yards, the anti-death penalty movement could no longer capitalize on the horrible details of execution. The anti-death penalty gained some success by the end of the s as MichiganRhode Islandand Wisconsin passed abolition bills.
Abolitionists also had some success in prohibiting laws that placed mandatory death sentences of convicted murderers.
However, some of these restrictions were overturned and the movement was declining. In addition, the anti-gallow groups who were responsible for lobbying for abolition legislation were weak.
The groups lacked strong leadership, because most members were involved in advocating for other issues as well, such as slavery abolishment and prison reform.
Members of anti-gallow groups did not have enough time, energy, or resources to make any substantial steps towards abolition. Thus, the movement declined and remained latent until after the post-Civil War period.
Second abolitionist era, late 19th and early 20th centuries[ edit ] The anti-death penalty gained momentum again at the end of the 19th century.
Populist and progressive reforms contributed to the reawakened anti-capital punishment sentiment. This method was supposed to be more humane and appease death penalty opponents. However, abolitionists condemned this method and claimed it was inhumane and similar to burning someone on a stake.
In an op-ed in The New York Timesprominent physician Austin Flint called for the abolition of the death penalty and suggested more criminology -based methods should be used to reduce crime.Capital Punishment: The arguments for and against Patricia Gallaher 20/11/17 Given the recent death of infamous cult leader and convicted murderer, Charles Manson, I thought of it as an appropriate time to discuss the ongoing arguments for and against capital punishment.
Among the major nations of the Western world, the United States is singular in still having the death penalty. After a five-year moratorium, from to , capital punishment was reinstated in the United States courts.
Objections to the practice have come from many quarters, including the. As more states consider joining Nebraska in abolishing capital punishment, they may create a momentum that will, in time, sway the U.S.
. United States: The United States refers to both federal and state governments; what Pro should advocate for is the federal government enacting a ban of capital punishment at both federal and state levels, i.e.
the Pro position must advocate for complete abolition of any legal death penalty in .
Increasingly, countries and states are banning the death penalty; drug companies are refusing to allow their products to be used for capital punishment; the U.S.
is executing fewer people; and public support for the death penalty is waning. Capital punishment is the lawful infliction of death as a punishment and has been in use in America since The Bible prescribes death for murder and many other crimes, including kidnapping and witchcraft.
As of October , 31 states have the death penalty. Arguments against the death penalty.