Study Courses on alchemical texts and symbolism by Adam McLean I began producing my study courses in in response to some people asking me to provide them with explanations of alchemical imagery and texts. I suspect they felt they had been deluged over the past years with many alchemical texts and yet they found they could not understand what they were reading there. This was partly due to the archaic language of some of these texts or the obscurities of emblematic symbolism, but it also arose from the fact that few people are able to contextualise the ideas in these texts or symbols in order to understand the difficult and obscure terms.
History of ferrous metallurgy and History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent The earliest recorded metal employed by humans seems to be gold which can be found free or "native". Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c.
However, for millennia fire was seen simply as a mystical force that could transform one substance into another burning wood, or boiling water while producing heat and light. Fire affected many aspects of early societies. These ranged from the simplest facets of everyday life, such as cooking and habitat lighting, to more advanced technologies, such as pottery, bricks, and melting of metals to make tools.
It was fire that led to the discovery of glass and the purification of metals which in turn gave way to the rise of metallurgy. Bronze Age Certain metals can be recovered from their ores by simply heating the rocks in a fire: However, as often happens with the study of prehistoric times, the ultimate beginnings cannot be clearly defined and new discoveries are ongoing.
Mining areas of the ancient Middle East. Yellow area stands for arsenic bronzewhile grey area stands for tin bronze. These first metals were single ones or as found. By combining copper and tin, a superior metal could be made, an alloy called bronzea major technological shift which began the Bronze Age about BC.
The Bronze Age was period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze.
These naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. After the Bronze Age, the history of metallurgy was marked by armies seeking better weaponry.
Countries in Eurasia prospered when they made the superior alloys, which, in turn, made better armor and better weapons. Iron Age The extraction of iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult than copper or tin. While iron is not better suited for tools than bronze until steel was discoverediron ore is much more abundant and common than either copper or tin.
So iron was much more often available locally without have to trade for it. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines. Historical developments in ferrous metallurgy can be found in a wide variety of past cultures and civilizations.
This includes the ancient and medieval kingdoms and empires of the Middle East and Near East, ancient Iranancient Egyptancient Nubiaand Anatolia TurkeyAncient NokCarthagethe Greeks and Romans of ancient Europe, medieval Europe, ancient and medieval China, ancient and medieval India, ancient and medieval Japan, amongst others.
Many applications, practices, and devices associated or involved in metallurgy were established in ancient China, such as the innovation of the blast furnacecast ironhydraulic -powered trip hammersand double acting piston bellows.
Atomism DemocritusGreek philosopher of atomistic school.If you have problems understanding these alchemical texts, Adam McLean now provides a study course entitled How to read alchemical texts: a guide for the perplexed. Isaac Newton devoted considerably more of his writing to the study of alchemy (see Isaac Newton's occult studies) than he did to either optics or physics.
Other early modern alchemists who were eminent in their other studies include Robert Boyle, and Jan Baptist van Helmont. Alchemy Study Program Module 1 - Alchemistic Philosophy (1Philosophy) -- Learn the philosophical principles of alchemy and see how they evolved from their roots in ancient Egypt to the present time.
Alchemy is an ancient practice shrouded in mystery and secrecy.
Its practitioners mainly sought to turn lead into gold, a quest that has captured the imaginations of people for thousands of years. ABOUT US. Alchemy specialise in the importation & distribution of specialty chemicals & food ingredients.
Our experienced team are passionate about providing superior service and knowledge to our valued customers and world leading suppliers. Alchemy (Su) Alchemists are not only masters of creating mundane alchemical substances such as alchemist’s fire and smokesticks, but also of fashioning magical potion-like extracts in which they can store spell ashio-midori.com effect, an alchemist prepares his spells by mixing ingredients into a number of extracts, and then “casts” his spells .